Argentina History Modernization
Source: Argentina National Department of Culture
When the War of Paraguay (1865-1870) ended (a war in which the alliance of Argentina with Uruguay and Brazil was named the Triple Alliance), the country began a stage of economic growth based on the export of livestock and agricultural products. This took place in a political background characterized by a long-awaited calm, which was crowned by a triumph: the federalization of Buenos Aires in 1880.
The advent of modernity in the country brought new values and its own problems. Thus, for instance, there was a rise of new social sectors: the working classes, the industrial bourgeoisie and the middle classes, with the addition of large quantities of European (mostly Italian and Spanish) immigrants.
Democracy supervised the whole process although sometimes circumstances and governments had little to do with democratic policies. The confrontation between conservatives and radicals marked this stage, until, in 1930, the government came to a violent end due to a coup d'état led by General José Félix Uriburu. Since then, institutional instability and the alternation of civil and military governments marked the political situation of the country. The crisis also impinged on economy and confrontations between the agricultural and livestock sectors and industrialists had a leading role in the disruption of stability.
In such conditions, in 1946 President Juan Domingo Perón took office, with the support of vast popular masses. The implementation of new economical and social policies characterized Perón's two first consecutive mandates. In 1955, however, a new coup d'état put an end to the Peronist government.
Between 1976 and 1983, Argentina lived its most heart-rending period. The military dictatorships which succeeded each other during those years were the most violent and agonizing. The systematic violation of the Human Rights and the accumulation of a monstrous foreign debt were the legacies of the military governments.
At last, in 1983, the country recovered democracy, which is still in force nowadays.
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