. . Flags of the World Maps of All Countries
  • |Main INDEX|
  • HISTORY INDEX
  • Country Ranks
  • ; geographic.org; Home; Page; Country Index

    China Nationalism and Communism
    http://workmall.com/wfb2001/china/china_history_nationalism_and_communism.html
    Source: The Library of Congress Country Studies
    << BACK TO HISTORY CONTENTS

    After Yuan Shikai's death, shifting alliances of regional warlords fought for control of the Beijing government. The nation also was threatened from without by the Japanese. When World War I broke out in 1914, Japan fought on the Allied side and seized German holdings in Shandong Province. In 1915 the Japanese set before the warlord government in Beijing the so-called Twenty-One Demands, which would have made China a Japanese protectorate. The Beijing government rejected some of these demands but yielded to the Japanese insistence on keeping the Shandong territory already in its possession. Beijing also recognized Tokyo's authority over southern Manchuria and eastern Inner Mongolia. In 1917, in secret communiques, Britain, France, and Italy assented to the Japanese claim in exchange for the Japan's naval action against Germany.

    In 1917 China declared war on Germany in the hope of recovering its lost province, then under Japanese control. But in 1918 the Beijing government signed a secret deal with Japan accepting the latter's claim to Shandong. When the Paris peace conference of 1919 confirmed the Japanese claim to Shandong and Beijing's sellout became public, internal reaction was shattering. On May 4, 1919, there were massive student demonstrations against the Beijing government and Japan. The political fervor, student activism, and iconoclastic and reformist intellectual currents set in motion by the patriotic student protest developed into a national awakening known as the May Fourth Movement. The intellectual milieu in which the May Fourth Movement developed was known as the New Culture Movement and occupied the period from 1917 to 1923. The student demonstrations of May 4, 1919 were the high point of the New Culture Movement, and the terms are often used synonymously. Students returned from abroad advocating social and political theories ranging from complete Westernization of China to the socialism that one day would be adopted by China's communist rulers.

    Data as of July 1987


    NOTE: The information regarding China on this page is re-published from The Library of Congress Country Studies. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of China Nationalism and Communism information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about China Nationalism and Communism should be addressed to the Library of Congress.

    Support Our Sponsor

    Support Our Sponsor

    Please put this page in your BOOKMARKS - - - - -



    http://workmall.com/wfb2001/china/china_history_nationalism_and_communism.html

    Revised 04-Jul-02
    Copyright © 2001 Photius Coutsoukis (all rights reserved)


    ctr12/21/01