South Sudan History
Source: US State Department
South Sudan’s independence came after many years of civil war between forces in the south and the Government of Sudan. Despite the signing of numerous agreements in September 2012 regarding oil transport, border security, economic and financial matters, a safe demilitarized border zone, and the final status of disputed areas, the relationship between the two countries remains fragile.
South Sudan is one of the world’s least developed countries. Its economy relies largely on revenues from oil exports and trade with its neighbor, Sudan.
Oil production stopped in January 2012 following a dispute with Sudan over transit fees, further reducing the country’s foreign reserves considerably and forcing it further into debt. Production of oil in South Sudan resumed in April 2013.
The Security Council established the United Nations Mission in the Republic of South Sudan (UNMISS) under a Chapter VII mandate in 2011. UNMISS consists of approximately 7600 uniformed staff, 900 international civilian staff, 1300 local civilian staff, and 400 UN Volunteers.
Numerous UN agencies and non-governmental organizations provide humanitarian and development assistance. South Sudan also has a large diplomatic presence.
Electricity, telephone and telecommunications, roads, and other forms of infrastructure are unreliable or sparse in many areas. Civilian institutions, including the criminal justice system, are rudimentary and not presently functioning at a level consistent with international standards.
There are no government services available in many parts of the country. South Sudan operates as a cash economy, and tourist facilities are limited throughout the country.
NOTE: The information regarding South Sudan on this page is re-published from the US State Department. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of South Sudan History information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about South Sudan History should be addressed to the State Department.