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    Kazakhstan Geography 2001

    https://photius.com/wfb2001/kazakhstan/kazakhstan_geography.html
    SOURCE: 2001 CIA WORLD FACTBOOK

      Location: Central Asia, northwest of China

      Geographic coordinates: 48 00 N, 68 00 E

      Map references: Commonwealth of Independent States

      Area:
      total: 2,717,300 sq km
      land: 2,669,800 sq km
      water: 47,500 sq km

      Area - comparative: slightly less than four times the size of Texas

      Land boundaries:
      total: 12,012 km
      border countries: China 1,533 km, Kyrgyzstan 1,051 km, Russia 6,846 km, Turkmenistan 379 km, Uzbekistan 2,203 km

      Coastline: 0 km (landlocked); note - Kazakhstan borders the Aral Sea, now split into two bodies of water (1,070 km), and the Caspian Sea (1,894 km)

      Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

      Climate: continental, cold winters and hot summers, arid and semiarid

      Terrain: extends from the Volga to the Altai Mountains and from the plains in western Siberia to oases and desert in Central Asia

      Elevation extremes:
      lowest point: Vpadina Kaundy -132 m
      highest point: Khan Tangiri Shyngy (Pik Khan-Tengri) 6,995 m

      Natural resources: major deposits of petroleum, natural gas, coal, iron ore, manganese, chrome ore, nickel, cobalt, copper, molybdenum, lead, zinc, bauxite, gold, uranium

      Land use:
      arable land: 12%
      permanent crops: 11%
      permanent pastures: 57%
      forests and woodland: 4%
      other: 16% (1996 est.)

      Irrigated land: 22,000 sq km (1996 est.)

      Natural hazards: earthquakes in the south, mudslides around Almaty

      Environment - current issues: radioactive or toxic chemical sites associated with its former defense industries and test ranges are found throughout the country and pose health risks for humans and animals; industrial pollution is severe in some cities; because the two main rivers which flowed into the Aral Sea have been diverted for irrigation, it is drying up and leaving behind a harmful layer of chemical pesticides and natural salts; these substances are then picked up by the wind and blown into noxious dust storms; pollution in the Caspian Sea; soil pollution from overuse of agricultural chemicals and salination from poor infrastructure and wasteful irrigation practices

      Environment - international agreements:
      party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
      signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

      Geography - note: landlocked; Russia leases approximately 6,000 sq km of territory enclosing the Baykonur Cosmodrome

      NOTE: The information regarding Kazakhstan on this page is re-published from the 2001 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Kazakhstan Geography 2001 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Kazakhstan Geography 2001 should be addressed to the CIA.

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    >Revised 21-Dec-01
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