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    Peru Geography 2001

      Location: Western South America, bordering the South Pacific Ocean, between Chile and Ecuador

      Geographic coordinates: 10 00 S, 76 00 W

      Map references: South America

      total: 1,285,220 sq km
      land: 1.28 million sq km
      water: 5,220 sq km

      Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Alaska

      Land boundaries:
      total: 5,536 km
      border countries: Bolivia 900 km, Brazil 1,560 km, Chile 160 km, Colombia 1,496 km (est.), Ecuador 1,420 km

      Coastline: 2,414 km

      Maritime claims:
      continental shelf: 200 NM
      territorial sea: 200 NM

      Climate: varies from tropical in east to dry desert in west; temperate to frigid in Andes

      Terrain: western coastal plain (costa), high and rugged Andes in center (sierra), eastern lowland jungle of Amazon Basin (selva)

      Elevation extremes:
      lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
      highest point: Nevado Huascaran 6,768 m

      Natural resources: copper, silver, gold, petroleum, timber, fish, iron ore, coal, phosphate, potash, hydropower

      Land use:
      arable land: 3%
      permanent crops: 0%
      permanent pastures: 21%
      forests and woodland: 66%
      other: 10% (1993 est.)

      Irrigated land: 12,800 sq km (1993 est.)

      Natural hazards: earthquakes, tsunamis, flooding, landslides, mild volcanic activity

      Environment - current issues: deforestation (some the result of illegal logging); overgrazing of the slopes of the costa and sierra leading to soil erosion; desertification; air pollution in Lima; pollution of rivers and coastal waters from municipal and mining wastes

      Environment - international agreements:
      party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
      signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

      Geography - note: shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest navigable lake, with Bolivia

      NOTE: The information regarding Peru on this page is re-published from the 2001 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Peru Geography 2001 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Peru Geography 2001 should be addressed to the CIA.

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    >Revised 21-Dec-01
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