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    Turkmenistan Geography 2001

    https://photius.com/wfb2001/turkmenistan/turkmenistan_geography.html
    SOURCE: 2001 CIA WORLD FACTBOOK

      Location: Central Asia, bordering the Caspian Sea, between Iran and Kazakhstan

      Geographic coordinates: 40 00 N, 60 00 E

      Map references: Commonwealth of Independent States

      Area:
      total: 488,100 sq km
      land: 488,100 sq km
      water: 0 sq km

      Area - comparative: slightly larger than California

      Land boundaries:
      total: 3,736 km
      border countries: Afghanistan 744 km, Iran 992 km, Kazakhstan 379 km, Uzbekistan 1,621 km

      Coastline: 0 km; note - Turkmenistan borders the Caspian Sea (1,768 km)

      Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

      Climate: subtropical desert

      Terrain: flat-to-rolling sandy desert with dunes rising to mountains in the south; low mountains along border with Iran; borders Caspian Sea in west

      Elevation extremes:
      lowest point: Vpadina Akchanaya -81.00 m; note - Sarygamysh Koli is a lake in northern Turkmenistan with a water level that fluctuates above and below the elevation of Vpadina Akchanaya (the lake has dropped as low as -110 m)
      highest point: Gora Ayribaba 3,139 m

      Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, coal, sulfur, salt

      Land use:
      arable land: 3%
      permanent crops: 0%
      permanent pastures: 63%
      forests and woodland: 8%
      other: 26% (1993 est.)

      Irrigated land: 13,000 sq km (1993 est.)

      Natural hazards: NA

      Environment - current issues: contamination of soil and groundwater with agricultural chemicals, pesticides; salination, water-logging of soil due to poor irrigation methods; Caspian Sea pollution; diversion of a large share of the flow of the Amu Darya into irrigation contributes to that river's inability to replenish the Aral Sea; desertification

      Environment - international agreements:
      party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection
      signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

      Geography - note: landlocked

      NOTE: The information regarding Turkmenistan on this page is re-published from the 2001 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Turkmenistan Geography 2001 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Turkmenistan Geography 2001 should be addressed to the CIA.

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    >Revised 21-Dec-01
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